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"An Electronic Health Record (EHR), which is an electronic version of a patient's medical history that is maintained by the provider over time, and may include all of the key administrative clinical data relevant to that persons care under a particular provider, including demographics, progress notes, problems, medications, vital signs, past medical history, immunizations, laboratory data and radiology reports." Sometimes called an Electronic Medical Record (EMR). (Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. Accessed May 7, 2018).


"The National Human Genome Research Institute's (NHGRI) Ethical, Legal and Social Implications (ELSI) Research Program was established in 1990 as an integral part of the Human Genome Project to foster basic and applied research on the ethical, legal and social implications of genetic and genomic research for individuals, families and communities." (ELSI Research Program." National Human Genome Research Institute. Accessed April 26, 2018).

Empirical Research

Empirical research "is a way of gaining knowledge by means of direct and indirect observation or experience. Empirical evidence (the record of one’s direct observations or experiences) can be analyzed quantitatively or qualitatively. Through quantifying the evidence or making sense of it in qualitative form, a researcher can answer empirical questions, which should be clearly defined and answerable with the evidence collected (usually called data)." ("Empirical Research: Definition and Steps of the Empirical Cycle," Webscholar. Accessed May 7, 2018). 

Employment or Insurance Discrimination

Discrimination is defined as "different treatment for similarly situated parties, especially when no legitimate reason appears to exist (Legal Information Institute, Cornell Law School. Accessed May 2, 2018). "Genetic discrimination occurs when people are treated differently by their employer or insurance company because they have a gene mutation that causes or increases the risk of an inherited disorder." ("What is Genetic Discrimination?" Genetics Home Reference, US National Library of Medicine. Accessed May 2, 2018).

Executive Order

"An executive order is a signed, written, and published directive from the President of the United States that manages operations of the federal government. . . . Executive orders are not legislation; they require no approval from Congress, and Congress cannot simply overturn them. Congress may pass legislation that might make it difficult, or even impossible, to carry out the order, such as removing funding. Only a sitting U.S. President may overturn an existing executive order by issuing another executive order to that effect." (American Bar Association. What is an Executive Order? Insights on Law & Society 2016;17(1).