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"Black's Law Dictionary (7th Edition) defines a 'tort' as: 'A civil wrong for which a remedy may be obtained, usually in the form of damages; a breach of a duty that the law imposes on everyone in the same relation to one another as those involved in a given transaction.' . . . 'Tort' is a French word which means a 'fault' or a 'wrong.' Torts are not claims for breach of contract, except in very special and limited contexts. Torts can, but do not have to, constitute crimes. Actions in tort are civil cases, as opposed to criminal cases." (C. Allen Van Winkle, "Torts: The Distinction Between Civil Actions and Crime and Punishment – A Primer," (blog), November 5, 2009).

Translational Research

"Translation is the process of turning observations in the laboratory, clinic and community into interventions that improve the health of individuals and the public — from diagnostics and therapeutics to medical procedures and behavioral changes. Translational science is the field of investigation focused on understanding the scientific and operational principles underlying each step of the translational process." (National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences, National Institutes of Health. Accessed May 10, 2018).